October 26, 2021

Broken Bonsai Pot? No Problem! Modern Methods for Ceramic Repair Through Kintsugi

           Whether from poor packaging or handling during shipping, a strong wind, a pet-related accident, or just our own clumsiness, everyone in bonsai eventually has to deal with the frustration of a broken bonsai pot. If you found this article because this recently happened to you, don't despair. You do have options. You could repair the pot so the cracks from its catastrophe are barely visible, but in the esoteric world of bonsai aesthetics, generations of Japanese ceramics before us have developed a more artistic way to mend broken pots - this is the process known as kintsugi. 
        This article began from my own research into methods of kintsugi repair so I could repair one of my broken pots.  Like in other areas of bonsai, there is a centuries-old, established, traditional technique but there are also more modern methods that can make the process of mending pots faster, simpler, and cheaper. The objective of this article is straightforward - find step-by-step information that is doable for an amateur (like me), and then narrow down potential methods by expected durability, quality of end product, time to complete the repair, cost of materials, and convenience to locate said materials. To evaluate this list of considerations, I summarized the pros and cons of each method according to my findings and interviews with people who have tried each technique (See the summary table at the end for the short version). Finally, I modified the winning kintsugi repair protocol for use on my pot and I will share that process & result next time.
There are 3 main types of kintsugi repair - piece, crack, or joint-call. Of the 3 types, the joint-call repair is the rarest and not commonly seen in bonsai displays. Source


Note: For the material sections, I make no endorsements of any suppliers. The links to suppliers are only one example of sources and pricing, but I'm sure your local art stores and hardware stores would appreciate your business as well!

I-I. Traditional Kintsugi Using Natural Products

            Kintsugi roughly translates in English to "golden joinery" or "golden repair" and is a process to reattach broken pieces of a pot with golden (or other metallic) highlights over the cracked regions. It is believed that highlighting the cracks and therefore highlighting the pot's broken history makes the pot more beautiful and possibly even more valuable. This style of ceramic repair has a long history dating back to the 15th century; allegedly, kintsugi originated when a Japanese shogun sent a ceramic tea bowl to China for repair and was disappointed when it came back with unsightly staples (source). This then led local Japanese artisans to create their own technique for ceramic mending that had more aesthetic appeal. In this early era, the repair was done using a Japanese lacquer made from condensed sap of Toxicodendron, the same genus as Poison Ivy (source). The gold powder was then added on top. Some methods today still use this general pattern, however, we also have stronger modern epoxies, less toxic lacquer options, and cheaper alternatives to gold dust.

16th-century kintsugi example from Korea's Joseon dynasty (now on display at Berlin's Ethnological Museum). Source

Methods:

        Specific information on the traditional kintsugi method is hard to come by in western sources, especially regarding the most critical information – how to make the Urushi lacquer from Toxicodendron sap or alternative tree resins. Luckily for those who want to be traditionalists, an artist in Italy has given you a head start. Thom Rozendaal recently shared the results of his experiments with alternative tree resins to create a close, natural epoxy to the original Japanese Urushi. Things get even more complicated when gilding the repair, but Thom has found a natural solution to that as well. I highly recommend reading more about his methods and trials here, the product of which you can see below (source).

The finished product of Thom's experiments alongside the solid tree resin that he used for the repair. Source

As best I can surmise, Thom's protocol was as follows.

  1. Dissolve copal resin (or alternative) in pure ethanol to render it into a liquid.
  2. Mix liquid resin with water and flour to get a tacky, epoxy-like texture.
  3. Apply resin to the pot and allow the repair to cure for multiple days.
  4. Dissolve shellac into ethanol, mix gold powder to desired viscosity.
  5. If using a copper-based powder, apply the mix quickly overtop your cracks to avoid oxidation of the color.

Materials:

  • est cost - $37.27 total
    • $7.99 - Copal resin
    • 4.50  - "Shellac" (clear-drying natural lacquer made from the secretions of an insect)
      • The website this links to is an Italian art store. I'm not sure if this product is widely available...
      • View the website in Italian and translate it in google translate to read about the properties of this lacquer and how to properly dissolve it.
    • $16.20 - 200 proof alcohol to dissolve the resin and lacquer.
    • $7.99 - Gold mica powder (or substitute)
    • Disposables for mixing, applying the epoxy.

Pros: 

This method is the closest I could find to the traditional Japanese method - if that is important to you.

Cons: 

Thom’s findings reveal that using tree resin to mend pottery comes with a very slow set time compared to synthetic epoxies. He reports it takes 3-7 days for the resin to fully cure. This means complicated broken pots with many pieces could take a month or more to repair via the original method.

Thom also noted it was impossible for his natural epoxy to ever dry if applied in too large an amount - this dooms any project with large missing pieces unless an alternative method is used or another solution is found.

Thom also discussed how the natural resins he used may not be durable to high temperatures in the context of dishwashing his repaired bowl. In the context of bonsai, this leaves us wondering whether the traditional repair method is durable to hot summer days and freezing cold temperatures. This may depend on the type of natural product used as other traditional kintsugi practitioners claim their products to be highly resilient (source).

Materials such as natural tree resin may be hard to source.

Mixing your own epoxy will take more trial and error to get the consistency correct.

I-II. Quick 2 Step: Superglue & Oil Sharpie

        This method was brought to my attention by a fellow Elandan Gardens/Dan Robinson apprentice alumnus, Eric Ridgeway. Eric and his wife Victrinia are both very advanced students of bonsai, so much so that they both had trees on display at the US National Bonsai Exhibit just a few weeks ago! That said, Eric's advice carries weight, so I was surprised to hear that this was his recommended kintsugi method as one quick fix -  I hadn't heard of anyone suggesting using these two ingredients before, but his results are hard to argue with (see below)!

Eric's final kintsugi result.

Methods:

  1. Superglue your pot back together.
  2. Clean excess superglue off with acetone. This removes residue that otherwise dries a white color (see below) which could be distracting.
  3. Once the glue has dried, apply a gold/silver sharpie along the crack lines of the repair.
This is what the dried super glue residue looks like that must be wiped off with acetone if there is too much excess. Source

Materials:

  • est cost - $16.17 total

Pros: 

        I hadn't heard of anyone suggesting using these two ingredients before, but one can certainly see how this would be the simplest and quickest fix! Because the materials are so commonplace, any number of stores in your local area will have them available all under one roof for an affordable price (think arts stores, hardware stores, etc.). Also, due to the short set time of superglue, an emergency kintsugi could be put together in one evening, although allowing for thorough drying is probably best before applying the gold line. In addition to simplicity & speed, this method can produce surprisingly beautiful results. Even on closer inspection, the line made by the oil sharpie is relatively clean.

Closeup view of Eric's repair.

Cons:

        Although this method produced great results when viewed from afar (as one would normally view it in bonsai displays) and surprisingly decent results when viewed up close, the crack remains slightly visible, whereas the other methods that follow should completely hide the crack. The superglue strategy will also not work for any pot that has large gaps or chips missing, however, the subsequent methods could overcome these issues.
        Another concern I had was that the color of the gold sharpie may fade with time. This really depends on what material is in the sharpie ink as organic pigments are particularly susceptible to sun bleaching, however, metal-based pigments are more resistant assuming they are not susceptible to rust. However, even if the pigment wears off, for this method it would be quick and easy to reapply it.
        Lastly, my only other concern with this method is the durability of the superglue. This is something that may vary with the exact type of glue you use so read the product labels carefully. Bonsai pots in use are exposed to a variety of snow-frozen and sun-heated temperatures throughout the year in addition to the passage of water and internal pressure from expanding roots. Although Eric's pot has held up since he made it, he says he does not intend to use it outside of shows, hence why he chose this quick method. However, BonsaiNut user ConnorDash (the owner of the textured pot shown above) reported that his superglued pot started to come apart within its first year of use. This may have been due to superglue's general weaker resistance to shear stress than epoxies have (source). Try this method if it is convenient to you, but bear this concern in mind. The remaining methods below are all based on epoxies.

I-III. 2-In-1 Step: Oozing Colored Epoxy

        Up next is the 2-In-1 Step procedure, meaning the metallic coloring is mixed directly into the repair epoxy. When two pieces are pushed together, this epoxy mixture adheres them while excess colored epoxy oozes out to cover the crack lines. This is the first of several methods I scraped from online resources such as forum posts and Youtube videos (in this case both from BonsaiNut poster Ollie and Youtuber Bonsai Echo).

Bonsai Nut user Ollie's final result from this method. Source

Bonsai Echo's finished product for a pot that had a chip in it. Source

Methods:

  1. Lightly sand broken edges (makes gold have more space to fill - stand out more; optional).
  2. Mix epoxy with gold mica powder (only need a couple pinches of powder)
  3. Wait for the epoxy to get tacky before applying (30 min for Araldite or immediately for quicker-setting epoxies)
    1. Apply with a disposable instrument such as a tongue depressor, toothpick, or cheap fine-tipped brush

Materials:

Pros

        The main advantage of this method is that it glues pieces, fills small voids, hides the crack evidence, and creates the gold effect all at the same time, whereas other subsequent methods are more involved and take additional days of curing/drying. In this relatively quick 1 Step process, the only thing that will slow you down is how many pieces you have to glue together. These epoxies do best with at least an overnight cure before the repair is stable enough to build additional pieces onto.
        Accompanying this relative speed is the technical accessibility of the technique and its inexpensive nature - anyone can do this method. Regarding price, if a more authentic repair is preferred, the gold mica powder can be substituted for real gold dust, although the difference may be hard to tell.
        A final benefit of this method is the durability of the repair. Although these example pots were completed relatively recently, both have survived day-to-day use containing plants for about 1 year now. In the case of Bonsai Echo, his pot has even survived Seattle's zone 8 winter and the recent 120°F summer heatwave. This may be advantageous relative to the Superglue Method, but a larger sample size over a longer time period is needed.

Cons

        Despite the simplicity of this first epoxy method, it does have some limitations. Firstly, because it is designed as a 2-in-1 Step method, the artist has less control over the final product of the gold line. It is dependent on how much epoxy is applied to the crack and how much void needs to be filled. One can attempt to apply more or less epoxy to generate thicker gold lines, however, it may take some experimentation to find the ideal amount for your aesthetic. The below image from BonsaiNut user Ollie shows how this can play out especially if you apply inconsistent amounts of epoxy over the line of the crack (see some areas had more epoxy pushed out than others). Ollie specifically suggested I emphasize that applying less epoxy can result in a thinner line, which is preferable to some.

Too much epoxy can lead to irregular line size. Source

        Conversely, if not enough epoxy is used or an area had a larger gap than others, then the epoxy may not fill the void completely and some will have to be carefully reapplied to blend that section into the other repair areas (see below, also from BonsaiNut's Ollie).

Too little epoxy can lead to gaps in the cracks that will need to be touched up. Source

            In addition, like with the gold sharpie from the Superglue Method, it's not clear how the epoxy or mica powder will hold up with age with respect to their color. If the clear epoxy becomes discolored or if the mica powder becomes tarnished over time, the color of the mend will change as well As bonsai artists, we have to think decades down the road, so this is a wait-and-see type of issue. However, if it does become an issue, gold powder could be a relatively easy substitution for mica powder for future repairs.
        Lastly, this 2-in-1 Step method has a significant limitation in the case of more seriously shattered pottery. If a piece is damaged beyond repair or missing, epoxy putty can create replacements for missing pieces. However, this 2-in-1 Step method will not be able to create a gold line around the edge of that replaced piece. The gold will have to be painted on after the epoxy putty dries (see next protocol). 

I-IV. 3 Step: Mend, Scrape, & Paint

        Next up on our round the net Kintsugi comparison comes the product of BonsaiNut forum user Gabler. He did us a favor by experimenting for several rounds on inexpensive pottery before completing the repair on his more valuable pot (see below). 

BonsaiNut Gabler's final product after several rounds of experimentation. Source

Methods:

        Gabler extensively documented his methods through photos, so I will share those in addition to the written instructions.

First broken pot. Source

Gabler's strategy to epoxy multiple pieces at a time was to use painter's tape. This may speed up the process as long as enough force is applied during the setting period to produce a strong repair. Source

Here we see an example of a piece that was destroyed beyond repair and now results in a large void to fill. Source

Epoxy putty can make for a quick and dirty mend in a hidden location like the bottom of a pot. I'm not sure what the best course of action would be if this was at a more visible location though. Source

In this method, Gabler used a grey-drying epoxy. Here you can see the excess epoxy oozing out during the set, like the previous method. Source

However, unlike the previous method, the excess sharpie is carefully scraped away here with an Exacto-knife. Source

Gold paint can then be applied to the set epoxy. Source

Briefly put,
  1. Apply PC-7 epoxy to broken pieces. Gabler reported JB Weld and JB Kwiek mends came apart in his Zone 7 winters, although Bonsai Echo reported no issues (again, small sample size).
    1. Can glue a few pieces at a time by holding things together with painter's tape.
  2. Once the epoxy dries, scrape off excess with a hard knife
  3. If a piece is missing or damaged beyond repair, use Do It Best brand epoxy putty to fill large voids. Gabler reports that JB Weld putty stuck to his hands more than to the ceramic.
  4. Finally, use a high-grade gold-colored metallic paint along with a tiny brush to apply the gold line to the epoxy-filled cracks.

Materials:

Pros:

        The primary advantages of this method relate to control over the gold line. By applying the gold separately after the pot is completely mended together, variation of the thickness of the gold line over the cracks is reduced relative to the 2-In-1 Step Method which is harder to control. Also, using a fine-tipped paintbrush can give a thinner gold line with cleaner edges when inspected up close than one might see from the gold Sharpie in the Superglue Method. Furthermore, the use of high-quality gold paint seems to result in a brighter, more lustrous gold finish than either of the previous methods. It remains to be seen whether substitution of real gold dust for mica powder would match this result when the gold dust is mixed with epoxy in the 2-In-1 Step MethodLastly, on the gold discussion, this method can allow for easy creation of a gold line alongside pieces that are replaced by epoxy putty, unlike the 2-In-1 Step Method.
        In addition to the quality advantages, on a practical level, this method is not as involved as the two methods that will follow. Also from a practical level, applying the gold separately opens up the choice of more epoxies if you already have some on hand or want to explore whether more durable options exist than in the clear-drying realm.

Cons:

        The main disadvantage of this method is that it is missing a step to backfill the crack lines for a smooth finish. This can result in the cracks being very apparent upon close inspection. Our final method will address a solution for this. Though, as with some of the previous methods, when viewing from afar, this is not a major issue.
        Also, scraping away excess glue may not be a straightforward task if the crack is on a textured area of the pot (see next method's example).
        Lastly, this method requires more waiting to execute than either the Superglue Method or the 2-in Step methods. This can be a practical consideration for those who are in a rush, but if the quality of the repair is important to you and you will spend many years looking at it, it may be worth investing more time into it.  You'll have to decide for yourself.

I-V. 4 Step: Mend, Scrape, Lacquer, & Gild

        This method is very similar to the 3 Step Method in that the gold is applied separately from the epoxy, however here BonsaiNut user ABCarve chose to apply real gold leaf on top of a thin varnish line rather than use gold paint.

Methods:

        As with Gabler's 3 Step Method, ABCarve has detailed his process through pictures for us. Unfortunately, they had the foot of a very unique pot fall off. Since the repair is in a textured region of the pot, the removal of the excess glue is more involved.

Here we see ABCarve's broken pot foot and his main supplies - gold leaf with JB Kwik epoxy. Source

To allow more gold to be visible in the future repair crack, ABCarve drew along the edge of the crack with a sharpie. They intended to sand away the pot in this region, thereby expanding the visible crack. Source

Sanding in progress with an abrasive wheel. Source

Sanding complete - now the crack is slightly enlarged. Source

Applying the epoxy. Since ABCarve only had one small piece, he could stamp the entire piece at once to apply the epoxy. Source

Mending the pot - oozing excess epoxy and all. Source

Due to the crack happening in a textured area, the excess had to be worn away with abrasives. An Exacto-knife may be more difficult to use in this context to get it all. Here a cutting edge tool is used. An abrasive wheel as used in the sanding step would damage the glaze. Source

A rubberized wheel with embedded abrasive was then used for final cleanup of excess epoxy. Source

This was the type of varnish that ABCarve used for the gold to adhere to the pot. Source

Similar to the 3 Step Method, apply with a tiny brush. ABCarve suggests waiting to apply until the varnish is tacky. Anywhere the varnish is applied, the gold will stick. Source

Applying real gold leaf. ABCarve's strategy was to press narrow strips into the crack. Source

Excess gold can be wiped away with a soft brush. Source

Again, briefly put...
  1. Lightly sand edges (optional - for a thicker line to show)
  2. Epoxy
  3. Scrape excess
  4. Varnish
  5. Press narrow strips of gold leaf into the crack
  6. Wipe away excess with a soft brush

Materials:

Note: While normally I make no endorsements of the companies in this article, in this case, ABCarve specifically suggested I plug GoldenLeafProducts.com. This is where they got their gold leaf from. Golden Leaf Products also has a variety of gilding tools including brushes adhesives, and alternative metals that can be used. Where possible in this particular materials section, I've linked to their items.

    Pros:

            As in the previous 3 Step Method, this method offers great control (in terms of thickness and close-up resolution of the line) of the gold highlight. Also, the use of real gold leaf makes the luster of the repair shine brighter here than any method we've seen so far (see below).

    Finished result!

    Cons:

            Also similar to the 3 Step Method, this method has the same amount of overall wait time and the same concern about scraping excess epoxy off of texture pots remains an issue. ABCarve's tutorial shows just how demanding that can be to avoid damaging the pot in the process.
            Lastly, this method is the most expensive so far and you are less likely to be able to find all of these ingredients at your local craft stores.

    I-VI. Professional Method (5 Step): Mend, Scrape, Fill, Lacquer, & Gild

            Lastly, our final method comes from the professional ceramic repair shop known as Lakeside Pottery. They sell ceramic repair services but also share a wealth of information on their website (lucky us!). Remember the article I shared on the strength of superglue vs epoxy? That was from Lakeside. Lakeside also shares videos of their work on YouTube. For example, earlier we talked about solutions for missing pieces; Lakeside even has a video specifically showing how they perform professional kintsugi repairs for objects with missing pieces (if you want to find out how to step up from epoxy putty) and how they blend those pieces into the final product. But, back to focusing on simpler repairs, in the video below, Lakeside shares their kintsugi protocol with specific products they recommend. Here I summarize their methods in a written form.



    Methods:

    1. Arrange pieces in a box with sand or small bonsai soil. This will hold them upright while they set.
    2. Mix, apply PC-Clear 4 minutes epoxy with a toothpick.
    3. After setting several hours, use an Exacto knife blade to remove excess epoxy.
      1. If allowed to set for more than a few hours, gently warming the excess epoxy with a blow torch can make removal easier (optional).
    4. Apply PC-11 A/B to fill gaps left in cracks. Press into/rub around the cracks with a cloth.
      1. Warm PC-11 with a wax warmer to make it easier to work with (optional).
    5. Wipe away excess PC-11 with 91% isopropyl alcohol on a cloth rag less than 20 minutes after applying.
    6. Apply lacquer or gild size with a mid/fine-tipped brush.
    7. Pour a small amount of gold dust (or mica powder substitute) into a folded piece of paper. This will be used to apply the gold to the lacquer and minimize waste. 
    8. Press gold dust into lacquer with a soft brush.
    9. Use a harder brush to remove unattached gold powder.
    10. Lastly, use a soft cloth to varnish the repair line (push the gold further into the lacquer).

    Materials:

    Pros:

            As you might expect from a ceramic repair specialty shop, their methods produce the highest quality finish.

    Cons:

            Although the finish is highly professional, the protocols Lakeside shares online are significantly more complicated than some of the early ones I summarized today. Accompanying these extra steps are extra supplies that are needed and therefore extra cost to you as well if you intend to copy their methods.

    I-VII. Protocol Summary Table

    A Quick Guide for considering which protocol you may want to pursue.

    Protocol

    Estimated Cost

    # Supplies

    Pros

    Cons

    Traditional Kintsugi Using Natural Products

    $37.27

    Copal resin (or other),

    Shellac (or other clear natural lacquer),

    200 proof ethanol,

    & Gold powder (or substitute)

    Closest to the traditional method.

    Difficult to source ingredients.

    Less straightforward to work with.

    Very slow set times.

    Durability is uncertain, especially with substitute tree resins aside from traditional Urushi.

     

    Quick 2-Step: Superglue & Oil Sharpie

    $16.17

    Superglue,

    Acetone,

    Rag,

    & Gold sharpie

    Quickest.

    Supplies common & easy to find.

    Can work with pieces replaced by epoxy putty.

     

    Fine detail lacking (cracks not totally hidden).

    Less durable?

    2-In-1 Step: Oozing Colored Epoxy

    $13.97-$21.98

    Clear epoxy,

    Gold mica powder or gold dust,

    & Disposables for mixing/applying epoxy

    Quick.

    Durable.

    Simple protocol for beginners.

    Crack highlight can be uneven.

    Cannot be applied to pieces replaced by epoxy putty.

     

    3 Step: Mend, Scrape, & Paint

    $21.35

    Epoxy,

    Disposables for mixing/applying epoxy,

    Metallic gold paint,

    & Thin brush

     

     

    More lustrous finish.

    High degree of control for crack highlight.

    Can work with pieces replaced by epoxy putty.

    More wait steps.

    Fine detail still lacking (cracks not totally blended in).

    Scraping excess epoxy is more challenging with textured pots.

    4 Step: Mend, Scrape, Lacquer, & Gild

    $44.98

    Epoxy,

    Disposables for mixing/applying epoxy,

    Exacto knife,

    Thin brush,

    Varnish or gild size,

    Gold leaf or dust,

    & Soft brush

    Most lustrous finish.

    High degree of control on crack highlight.

    Can work with pieces replaced by epoxy putty.

    More wait steps.

    More expensive.

    Supplies may be harder to track down locally.

    Scraping excess epoxy is more challenging with textured pots.

    Professional 5 Step: Mend, Scrape, Fill, Lacquer, & Gild

    $58.21

    Epoxy,

    Disposables for mixing/applying epoxy,

    Exacto knife,

    PC-11,

    91% isopropyl alcohol,

    Rag,

    Thin brush,

    Lacquer or gild size,

    Gold or mica dust,

    Scrap paper,

    Harder brush,

    & Soft cloth

    Highly lustrous finish.

    High degree of control on gold line.

    Crack repair becomes level with pot surface.

    Can work with pieces replaced by epoxy putty.

     

    Most wait steps.

    Most expensive.

    Supplies may be harder to track down locally.

    Scraping excess epoxy is more challenging with textured pots.

    II. Or... just leave the pot broken!

            Aside from the option to repair pots via kintsugi, or the wasteful option of discarding the broken pieces and buying a new pot, broken pots can also be used as unique planters in their own right (as Bonsai Echo did below).

    Broken pot planting examples from when I visited Bonsai Echo's garden in 2019. More examples available here.

    III. Blog Announcements

    1. Check out my Before & After Portfolio! I've added some new gifs of work that I had done during my apprenticeship at Elandan Gardens.
    2. My Sales page has also been updated. Now is a perfect time to start preparing to cold-startify seeds, so check out my new seed stock for 2022! As always, all sales come with my 10-Year Bonsai From Seed Guide.
    3. As always, submit your trees for free critique or advice here. I need new trees for the next Bonsai Buds episode (coming January 2022)!
    4. The Columbus Bonsai Society has a new website! If you're in the area, check it out and check us out. The next meeting on safely winterizing trees will be November 21st.

    IV. References

    Huge thanks to all the bonsai sources who allowed me to reproduce their images and protocols and shared their own thoughts for this comparative review!
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ABCarve. (n.d.). Kintsugi for beginners | Bonsai Nut [Forum]. Bonsai Nut. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://www.bonsainut.com/threads/kintsugi-for-beginners.38117/
    Bonsai Echo. (2020, January 3). Non Food Safe, Kintsugi-Derived Repair Using Epoxy and Faux Gold On a Broken Bonsai Pot. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHIVFPF-Sj4
    ConnorDash. (n.d.). Kintsugi: UPS Smashed My Brand New Pot [Forum]. Bonsai Nut. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://www.bonsainut.com/threads/kintsugi-ups-smashed-my-brand-new-pot.46953/
    Daderot. (2014). English: Exhibit in the Ethnological Museum, Berlin, Germany. Photography was permitted in the museum without restriction. Own work. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tea_bowl,_Korea,_Joseon_dynasty,_16th_century_AD,_Mishima-hakeme_type,_buncheong_ware,_stoneware_with_white_engobe_and_translucent,_greenish-gray_glaze,_gold_lacquer_-_Ethnological_Museum,_Berlin_-_DSC02061.JPG
    File:Tea bowl, Korea, Joseon dynasty, 16th century AD, Mishima-hakeme type, buncheong ware, stoneware with white engobe and translucent, greenish-gray glaze, gold lacquer—Ethnological Museum, Berlin—DSC02061.JPG - Wikimedia Commons. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tea_bowl,_Korea,_Joseon_dynasty,_16th_century_AD,_Mishima-hakeme_type,_buncheong_ware,_stoneware_with_white_engobe_and_translucent,_greenish-gray_glaze,_gold_lacquer_-_Ethnological_Museum,_Berlin_-_DSC02061.JPG
    Gabler. (n.d.). Kintsugi: UPS Smashed My Brand New Pot | Bonsai Nut [Forum]. Bonsai Nut. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://www.bonsainut.com/threads/kintsugi-ups-smashed-my-brand-new-pot.46953/#post-808777
    Golden Leaf Products, Gold Leaf, Gilding Tools and Supplies. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://www.goldenleafproducts.com/
    japanesepots. (2014, February 27). Kintsugi. Japanese Bonsai Pots Blog. https://japanesebonsaipots.net/2014/02/27/kintsugi/
    Lakeside Pottery. (n.d.-a). Ceramic, Porcelain, Sculpture, Pottery Repair and Restoration How to. Lakeside Pottery. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://lakesidepottery.com/Pages/Repairing-restoring-ceramic-porcelain-china-pottery-lessons-tutorials.html
    Lakeside Pottery. (n.d.-b). Epoxy or Super Glue for Ceramic, Sculpture or China Repair. Lakeside Pottery. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://lakesidepottery.com/Pages/Pottery-tips/epoxies-vs-cyanoacrylate-super-glue-crazy-glue-ceramic-china-repair.htm
    Lakeside Pottery. (2018, January 12). Kintsugi Repair, Learn How Is It Made? Materials Used Process Instructions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMugGpEiAP8
    Lakeside Pottery. (2021, March 7). Very Broken Large Bowl With Missing Segments Repaired and Finished with Kintsugi Process. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4yMzK7kRRUM
    Ollie. (n.d.). Kintsugi: UPS Smashed My Brand New Pot | Bonsai Nut [Forum]. Bonsai Nut. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://www.bonsainut.com/threads/kintsugi-ups-smashed-my-brand-new-pot.46953/#post-806145
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